There’s been some big news in the National Park System in recent weeks with President Obama using the Antiquities Act to add two new national parks to the U.S. National Park System, taking us to 407 total U.S. national parks. There’s also the usual monthly release of new cancellations for the Parks Passport program, which had two additions this March, one of them for the brand new Park.
The first of the two new national parks is Pullman National Monument in Chicago, located south and west of Chicago’s downtown. Parkasaurus wrote a short post on the proposal for this national park back in August. The new National Monument will include the historic administration building and clock tower, which will actually be the only part of the monument owned by the Federal Government. The administration building was badly damaged by a fire in 1999, and the higher profile of being a national park site should definitely assist fundraising efforts to repair and restore the building.
The rest of the Monument will retain its current ownership. The architecturally beautiful Hotel Florence and the old factory will remain owned by the State of Illinois as part of Pullman State Historic Site. The old greenstone church and the numerous worker houses from Pullman’s days as an old-style company town will remained owned by the residents. Full details are available in the monument’s official proclamation.
This National Monument has clearly been in the works for a long time. President Obama actually flew in to Chicago to make the announcement on-site, and as part of the ceremonies the National Park Service staff from nearby Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore already had a Junior Ranger program available, as well as a Passport cancellation: Pullman National Monument | Chicago, IL. The cancellation is available at the Historic Pullman Foundation’s Visitor Center, which is serving as the Park Visitor Center until the Administration Building is complete.
The second new national park, which was also established under the Antiquities Act on the same day is Honouliuli National Monument, located just outside of urban Honolulu in Hawaii. At first glance, Honouliuli appears to be the fifth national park telling the story of Japanese internment during World War II. The first of these is Manzanar National Historic Site in California, which was established as a national park in 1992. Manzanar was established after a detailed special resource study by the National Park Service on Japanese internment and was selected because it was the first internment camp to be established, the California desert had left Manzanar relatively well-preserved, and its proximity to the main highway between southern California and many of California’s ski resorts insured that it would be relatively accessible to visitation. The other three are:
- Minidoka National Historic Site in Idaho (and also including a small memorial in Washington State), was established in 2001;
- the Tule Lake Internment Camp in northern California, which was the largest internment camp, was established (along with sites around Pearl Harbor in Hawaii and in the Aleutian Islands in Alaska) as part of World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument in 2008; and finally,
- the Memorial to Japanese-American Patriotism in World War II, which is part of the National Capital Parks in downtown Washington, DC.
The story of Honouliuli will be somewhat different than these other four, however, in two important ways. First, because of the very large numbers of people of Japanese ancestry in the Territory of Hawaii immediatelly following the attack on Pearl Harbor, internment was carried out much more selectively in Hawaii than the mass-internment which occurred on the American mainland. In total, only about 2,000 residents of the Territory of Hawaii were interned in World War II, and of those, only about 320 were interned at Honouliuli. By contrast, Manzanar had more than 10,000 internees at its peak, and Tule Lake had more than 18,000 internees at its peak. Secondly, Honouliuli actually held more than 4,000 prisoners of war. In that sense, Honouliuli might also develop closer ties with Andersonville National Historic Site in Georgia, the site of the infamous prisoner of war camp operated by the Confederacy.
As of the date of proclamation, however, Honouliuli has become largely overgrown. Indeed, the site was actually donated to the Federal Government by Monsanto, which had subsequently acquired the site and surrounding lands. Right now there is no public access to the site. It will be at least a few months before the site is open to limited visitation, and likely several years before it is fully opened to regular visits. So no Passport Cancellation, just yet for this site.
The second new Passport Cancellation for March instead goes to the Selma-to-Montgomery National Historic Trail with a stamp for its 50th Anniversary 1965-2015. The historic voting rights march to the State Capitol in Montgomery of course came just days after the Nation was then-marking the 100th Anniversary of Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address, and his call to “achieve and cherish a just, and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.”
The addition of Pullman National Monument and Honouliuli National Monument means that there are now 407 national parks in the U.S. National Park System, with another three national parks that were authorized by the Defense Authorization Act for 2015 expected to be established by the end of the year. Meanwhile, we have recalibrated our calculations of what constitutes a unique Passport cancellation, so the addition of these two new cancellations takes us to a total of 1,889 unique stamps in the Passport Program, with 79 of those being stamps for anniversaries or special events and programs associated with the Parks.Share this Parkasaurus post: