Tag Archives: Andersonville NHS

September 2017 Stamps – Crossroads of the Revolution and More!

Campers at Rob Hill in Golden Gate National Recreation Area can get a new Passport Stamp and may want to take a walk to check out the Golden Gate Bridge or the Fort Point National Historic Site. Photo from 2015.

The new stamps for September 2017 (yes, 2017 – but we’re happy to be back) are highlighted by a plethora of stamps for the Crossroads of the American Revolution National Heritage Area, and a few more:

Golden Gate National Recreation Area | Rob Hill

Salem Maritime National Historic Site |

      • America’s First
      • Hawkes House
      • St. Joseph Hall

Yellowstone National Park | Bechler Ranger Station

Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail | Smallwood State Park, MD

Trail of Tears National Historic Trail |

      • Old Jefferson, TN
      • Webber Falls Museum, OK

Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area |

      • Copake Iron Works
      •  Sleepy Hollow Cemetery
      • Woodstock Playhouse

Crossroads of the American Revolution National Heritage Area |

      • Abraham Clark Memorial House
      • Battle of Connecticut Farms
      • Battle of Springfield
      • Battle of the Short Hills
      • Belcher-Ogden Mansion
      • Boxwood Hall
      • Caldwell Parsonage
      • Cannonball House
      • Carter House
      • Deacon Andrew Hetfield House
      • Drake House
      • Dr William Robinson Plantation
      • Elizabeth and Gershom Frazee House
      • First Presbyterian Church of Elizabeth
      • King’s Highway
      • Liberty Hall
      • Littell-Lord Farmstead
      • Merchants & Drovers Tavern
      • Miller-Cory House
      • Osborn Cannonball House
      • Plainfield Meeting House
      • Salt Box Museum
      • Snyder Academy
      • St. John’s Parsonage
      • The Deserted Village
      • Washington-Rochambeau NHT
      • Woodruff House – Eaton Store Museum
The Battle of Short Hills is one of many stamps this month for the Crossroads of the Revolution National Heritage Area. Photo credit: Brian Bailey, 2017

Working in reverse order this month, the most notable addition to the Passport Program are the 27 stamps for the Crossroads of the Revolution National Heritage Area.  Although this Heritage Area includes sites associated with the Revolutionary War across 14 counties in central New Jersey, all 27 of this month’s additions are located in Union County New Jersey, which is part of the greater New York City metropolitan area.   Many of the historic sites in Union County have limited hours, some as little as one weekend a month, and others are even open only by appointment only.  However, Union County hosts a “Four Centuries in a Weekend” event each year during the third weekend in October, when all of these sites will be open.   So make your plans for this coming October accordingly!

If you aren’t up for visiting all 27 sites in Union County, a few of these sites are more strongly connected to the primary Revolutionary War mission of this National Heritage Area.

The Battle of the Short Hills was fought on June 26, 1777 over a stretch of 12 miles.  The stamp can be found at the Ash Brook Reservation County Park, along with the stamp for the Washington-Rochambeau NHT.  The Ash Brook Reservation is a nature preserve protecting in part some authentic New Jersey swamp.   The Elizabeth and Gershom Frazee House in Scotch Plains briefly saw the arrival of British troops during the battle.  Also in Plainfield are the Osborn Cannonball House, which was struck by a British cannonball, and the Drake House, which was once used as Washington’s Headquarters during the battle.  The nearby Plainfield Meetinghouse was built in 1788 by the Quakers and is still an active Quaker community to this day.

The Battle of Connecticut Farms was a three-hour engagement fought on June 7, 1780 in the town of Union, NJ.   The stamp for this battle can be found at the Caldwell Parsonage in Union.  The current Caldwell Parsonage was rebuilt in 1782 after the original was burned by the British following the Battle of Connecticut Farms.   The historic home features a painting of the battle, as well as both stamps.

The Battle of Springfield occurred two weeks later on June 23, 1780, and is known primarily as the last Revolutionary War battle fought in the northern colonies before the fateful Battle of Yorktown in September and October 1781.  This stamp can be found at the Cannon Ball House in Springfield.  This historic home features a cannonball still lodged in its walls from the Battle of Springfield, as well as both stamps.

Boxwood Hall is another one of the many new Passport locations in Union County, New Jersey. Photo credit: Brian Bailey, 2017

The Boxwood Hall State Historic Site preserves the the former house of Elias Boudinot in Elizabeth, NJ.  Boudinot served as a President of the Continental Congress.  Nearby is the First Presbyterian Church of Elizabeth, which was burned by the British in 1780 and was rebuilt in 1790, and the St. John’s Parsonage in Elizabeth, whose earliest portions date back to the 18th Century.   The Abraham Clark Memorial House in Roselle is a 1941 replica of the house of one of New Jersey’s signers of the Declaration of Independence.  Unfortunately, the original burned in 1900.   The Liberty Hall Museum at Kean University in Union preserves the home of William Livingston.  Livingston was New Jersey’s first Governor and a signer of the Constitution. The Carter House in Summit and the Miller-Cory House in Westfield each date back to the 1740’s.  The Miller-Cory House in particular now operates as a living history museum, with frequent special events.

By contrast, the Dr. William Robinson Plantation in Clark and the Belcher-Ogden Mansion in Elizabeth both date all the way back to New Jersey’s earliest colonial times in the 17th Century.

A number of other sites preserve the post-Revolutionary War history of Union County.  The Deserted Village Visitor Center is in the Watchung Reservation County Park.  The Deserted Village is a former company town created by New York businessman David Felt in 1845, and thus was known as “Feltville” in its hey day.  Also dating to the 19th Century are the Littell-Lord Farmstead in Berkeley Heights, the Merchants and Drovers Tavern Museum in Rahway, and the Salt Box Museum in New Providence.  The Salt Box Museum is so-named because the unusual way in which two historic houses were joined together in the mid-19th century left a visual impression that resembled a salt box. The Merchants and Drovers Tavern also includes the stamp for King’s Highway.  The King’s Highway was a colonial-era road connecting Boston, Massachusetts to Charleston, South Carolina. It was built over a period of more than 80 years on the orders of Britain’s Charles II beginning in 1650.   Astute Passport observers may note that there is also a Crossroads of the Revolution NHA stamp for “Maidenhead Road/King’s Highway, NJ” located at the David Brearley House in Lawrenceville, near Trenton.  That stamp was discussed by Parkasaurus in June 2016.

Some of the locations have origins hundreds of years ago as well as 20th Century significance.  The Woodruff House-Eaton Store of Hillside, which includes an 18th-Century House, a circa-1900 neighborhood store, and a museum devoted to former New York Yankees baseball player Phil Rizzuto.  The Deacon Andrew Hetfield House in Mountainside was built in 1760, and was expanded in the 19th Century, and later became the home of MacKinlay Kantor.  Kantor is the author of the Civil War novel Andersonville, about the Confederate Prisoner of War Camp preserved in Georgia as Andersonville National Historic Site.

Smallwood State Park in Maryland is the latest Passport addition to the Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail. Photo Credit: Cohee from Wikimedia Commons

The new stamp for Smallwood State Park on the Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail joins an existing stamp for the Captain John Chesapeake National Historic Trail at this location, which was released along with quite a few others in September 2015 | Parkasaurus.  The site preserves the summer estate of Revolutionary War General and former Maryland Governor William Smallwood.

The Golden Gate National Recreation Area includes a number of parklands in and around the city of San Francisco, California.  Among the many properties included is the former military installation known as “The Presidio.”  Rob Hill is the name of the group campground maintained by the Presidio Trust, one of the non-profit partners of the Golden Gate NRA, on the grounds of the The Presidio, right in the heart of the city of San Francisco.

Salem Maritime National Historic Site was actually the first National Park Service area to be dedicated a National Historic Site, back in March 1938.   One of its new stamps this month commemorates this landmark status.   The Park itself includes approximately 10 historic buildings, and the other two new stamps complement the five new stamps issued in July 2016.

Yellowstone National Park already has 14 Passport Cancellations.   However, the new cancellation for the Bechler Ranger Station in the lightly-visited southwest corner of the Park adds a new twist the Passport itinerary for Yellowstone.   There are no roads connecting the southwest corner of the Park to the Grand Loop Road that connects almost all the other destinations in the park.  Reaching the Bechler Ranger Station will take a nearly two hour drive outside the park from Yellowstone’s West Entrance in Montana, and a more than three hour drive from Yellowstone’s South Entrance at the border with the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway and Grand Teton National Park.

The “Old Jefferson Site” is a section of the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail that was only identified by researchers in recent years.  The site is located in the East Fork Recreation Area, near Murfreesboro, TN, and is managed by the US Army Corps of Engineers.  The town of Webbers Falls, Oklahoma is named after a Cherokee Chief, Walter Webber, who established a trading post near the falls of the Arkansas River here in 1818, a dozen years before President Andrew Jackson would sign the Indian Removal Act in 1830, which officially began the “Trail of Tears.”  The Webbers Falls Museum is the historical society museum for the town.

The Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area adds three new stamps this month.  The Copake Iron Works are located very close to the New York-Massachusetts border, about halfway between Poughkeepsie and Albany.  The Sleepy Hollow Cemetery is located just north of the Tappan-Zee bridge on the east side of the Hudson River.  The town was made famous by author Washington Irving, who is buried there.  The Woodstock Playhouse is a an outdoor arts venue in the foothills of the Catskill Mountains.   The famous Woodstock Music Festival of 1969 was actually held some 40 miles away for logistical reasons, but the Woodstock Playhouse has a history of its own going back to the 1930’s.

The remains of the blast furnace at Copake Iron Works, a new Cancellation location for the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area this month. Photo credit: IlyaSukhanov, from Wikimedia Commons
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September New Stamps: Devils Hole, Ice Age Floods, and More!

 

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Fort Pulaski National Monument, near Savannah, Georgia, is one of the many parks with a new passport stamp this month.

 

Since I’ve started tracking the monthly releases of new stamps for this blog last year in September, this may be the single biggest month yet.  Indeed, the last few months may be the single-greatest expansion of the stamp program in a three month period, or at the very least, the largest expansion since the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area added 60+ new stamps in a single month back in the winter of 2008.

With such a long list, I am going to break the listings into two parts, starting with the new passport stamp additions for parks that are counted among the 408 units of the U.S. National Park System.

Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area | Charit Creek Lodge

Blackstone River Valley National Historical Park |

  • Ashton, RI
  • Pawtucket, RI
  • RI / MA

Bryce Canyon National Park | Bryce, UT

Death Valley National Park | Devils Hole

Fort Pulaski National Monument | Sutler Store

Mississippi National River and Recreation Area | St. Anthony Falls Lock and Dam

There were also two special event stamps discovered this month:

Andersonville National Historic Site | Funeral for 13,000

Kenilworth Park & Aquatic Gardens | Lotus & Water Lilly Festival

Most notable among these new stamps are the three new ones for the Blackstone River Valley National Historical Park.  This is one of the new national parks that was established in last December’s Defense Authorization Act.  In fact, this national park is still so new, that the National Park Service doesn’t even have a website up and running for it, although once the website is ready, it looks like you’ll be able to find it at www.nps.gov/blac*.  Pawtucket, Rhode Island is the home of the Slater Mill, which is arguably the centerpiece of the new national historical park, and has a claim to be one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution in the United States.  Ashton, Rhode Island is the home of Blackstone River State Park, which features a canal towpath and riverwalk, as well as the Captain Wilber Kelly House Museum.

Fort Pulaski National Monument is the local national park in Savannah, Georgia, and is one of several “coastal fortification” sites in the National Park System.  The Sutler Store is the park bookstore, located inside the fort, and previously housed a second copy of the stamps found in the visitor center at the entrace to the fort.  It looks like it will now have a stamp of its own.

The Charit Creek Lodge is one of a handful of unique, backcountry lodges located in the National Park System.  A hiking trip out to this lodge is another good reason for a trip out to Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area.  Meanwhile, the new stamps at Bryce Canyon National Park and Mississippi National River and Recreation Area appear at first glance to simply re-issues of stamps for existing stamp locations.  The St. Anthony Falls Lock & Dam, for example, are located directly behind the Mill City Museum which is a must-see destination for anyone visiting Minneapolis, regardless of whether you are visiting the national parks or collecting the passport stamps.  The Mill City Museum does a really fantastic job telling the story of the Twin Cities, and the history of milling industry in the area.

The Funeral for 13,000 program at Andersonville National Historic Site will commemorate the Civil War dead who are buried there.
The Funeral for 13,000 program at Andersonville National Historic Site will commemorate the Civil War dead who are buried there.

At Andersonville National Historic Site, the “Funeral for 13,000” is a special event held this September to commemorate the burying at the end of the Civil War of the numerous Union soldiers who died there.  According to the park’s website, this will be a very limited-edition cancellation, only available in September – which will surely be frustrating to the “passport completists” out there.   On the other hand, the Lotus and Water Lilly Festival at Kenilworth Aquatic Gardens in Washington, DC is an annual event held each July – so enthusiasts will have another opportunity to collect that stamp next summer.

Perhaps the most striking of the new stamps, however, is the new stamp for Devil’s Hole at Death Valley National Park.   Devil’s Hole is home to what most scientists consider to be the world’s rarest fish.   The tiny, inch-long, Devil’s Hole pupfish lives nowhere else on earth but this small desert pond of only about 500 square feet in surface area – a space that’s smaller than some master bedrooms that are built these days.

I first learned about Devils Hole when it was mentioned in one of the most memorable and formative stories that I read while growing up.  I suppose it says a lot about me, with no further commentary needed, that I was reading Natural History magazine  on a monthly basis as a teenager.  Make of that what you will, but the January 1993 issue had a haunting article entitled “Species in a Bucket” – the memory of which has still stuck with me.  The subject of this story was a close relative of the Devil’s Hole pupfish, this one called the Owens pupfish.   The story relates an incident from 1969 in which the author, a wildlife biologist, found himself carrying the entire surviving population of Owens pupfish in two buckets in order to save the species from near-certain extinction due to declining water levels in its native habitat.   Fortunately, restoration efforts for this species have led to four established populations, leaving it slightly less-endangered than the Devils Hole pupfish.   Nonetheless, this article is worth reading, and Natural History magazine has made it available for free online, so I encourage you to check it out and see if it impacts you as much as it did my younger self.

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The St. Anthony Falls Lock and Dam are part of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area in Minneapolis, Minnesota and are commemorated in a new passport stamp this month.

Finally, a number of National Park Service partners also received stamps this month.   Due to limitations of space and time, I’ll simply list them without extensive commentary this month:

Coal National Heritage Area | Princeton Railroad Museum

Mississippi Hills National Heritage Area |

  • Corinth, MS
  • Tishomingo County
  • New Albany, MS
  • Holly Springs, MS
  • DeSoto County
  • Oxford, MS
  • Starkville, MS
  • Columbus, MS

The Mississippi Hills National Heritage Area is located in northeast Missouri.  These eight stamps join two existing stamps for a total of ten.   The awkwardly named  National Coal Heritage Area is located in southern West Virginia, and now has nine active passport stamp locations.

California National Historic Trail | Fort Bridger, WY

Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail | Fort Bridger, WY

Oregon National Historic Trail | Fort Bridger, WY

Pony Express National Historic Trail | Fort Bridger, WY

Pony Express National Historic Trail | St. Joseph, MO

Its worth noting that Fort Bridger is a Wyoming State Historic Site, and was a notable trading outpost on the western trails.   St. Joseph, Missouri is the famous starting point of the short-lived overland mail route.

Santa Fe National Historic Trail | El Rancho de los Golondrias, NM

El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail | New Mexico History Museum, NM

North Country National Sceni Trail | Carlton, MN

Capt. John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail |

  • Havre de Grace, MD
  • Oxon Hill, MD
  • Fort Washington, MD
  • Piscataway Park
  • Smallwood State Park, MD
  • Jefferson Patterson Park & Museum
  • Historic St. Mary’s City, MD
  • Point Lookout State Park, MD
  • Deltaville, VA
  • Urbanna, VA
  • Richmond, VA
  • Onacock, VA

Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail |

  • Montana Natural History Center
  • National Bison Range
  • Fort Spokane
  • Dry Falls State Park
  • Columbia Gorge Discovery Center
  • Multnomah Falls
  • Vista House

This is the second stamp for El Rancho de los Golondrias, which already had a stamp for the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail.   The town of Santa Fe, New Mexico was a hub of trading activity first for Spanish Mexico, and then for independent Mexico after 1821.  The El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro is literally the “Royal Road to the Interior” and connected the colonial capital of Aguascalientes, located in the center of present-day Mexico, to the trading post of Santa Fe.   Following Mexican independence in 1821, trade was opened with the United States, and the Santa Fe Trail was a trading route from Missouri to Santa Fe.  El Rancho de los Golondrias, literally, “Ranch of the Swallows,” is located about a days’ walk to the south and west of Santa Fe, and so was a popular “last stop” for traders arriving on the camino real for the south.   Its a little surprising to see this location receive a stamp for the Santa Fe NHT, as it does not appear to be located on the trail route itself, located as it is just to the west of Santa Fe.   However, today the site operates as a living history museum, and its possible that they have added some educational exhibits on the Santa Fe Trail, given the site’s proximity to Santa Fe.

For the North Country National Scenic Trail,  Carlton, Minnesota is located just outside of Duluth, on the southwest tip of Lake Superior.  It is located adjacent to Jay Cooke State Park, which has long had a passport stamp reading “Minnesota” on it, and so this is probably its first place-specific passport stamp.

The Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail may bring travelers to discover the landscapes of eastern Washington. Photo from 2004.
The Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail may bring travelers to discover the landscapes of eastern Washington. Photo from 2004.

 

Finally, perhaps the highlight of this month’s stamps are the first seven stamps for the Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail.   Imagine a lake larger than the State of Delaware and more than twice as deep as Lake Superior suddenly letting loose in a massive flood, sending all that water racing at once across hundreds of miles towards the ocean.  The force an power of these floods would surely alter the shape of the landscape for thousands of years to come!  Geologists tell us that that is exactly what happened approximately 12,000 years ago on the plains of western Montana and easter Washington.

In fact, geologists tell us that similar events happened several times during the previous 5,000 years.  The sources of these floods were water and ice from the melting glaciers of the last ice age.  Periodically, ice would form a natural dam in a valley, causing a large lake to form.   When the ice dam would melt or break, the lake would drain – sometimes violently.

The largest of the floods, which I described above, was also one of the last such floods.  Geologists call the source of this flood Glacial Lake Missoula, and when the ice gave way, it let loose at speeds up to 45 miles an hour.  At its peak, the flood may have released a torrent of water at the rate of 400 million cubic feet of water per second.   As a comparison, the Amazon River only flows at 6 million cubic feet per second.

Its not known if any human had yet arrived in the area to witness this cataclysmic event.   Archeologists date the first arrival of humans in the United States right around 12,000 years ago as well.  If any early settlers were in the area, the sheer noise of this event must have been as terrifying as the scouring of the landscape.

Congress established the Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail in 2009, and this is the first trail to bear the designation “National Geologic Trail.”  Its obviously been quite an effort to get this first National Geologic Trail up and running – but the release of these seven passport stamps is perhaps the first indication that this program is open and ready for discovery.

With this month’s additions there are now 1,981 active passport cancellations to collect.  Excluding anniversary and special-event stamps, there are 1,883 passport stamps.

Source:  Weis, Paul and William L. Newman. The Channeled Scablands of Eastern Washington: The Geologic Story of the Spokane Flood 2nd Edition. U.S. Department of the Interior and Eastern Washington University Press.  1999.

Update (September 2016): The Blackstone River Valley National Historical Park now has its own website, separate from the National Heritage Corridor.  It can be found at http://www.nps.gov/blrv 

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Two New National Parks, Two New Stamps

Pullman_Chicago_Clock_Tower
The old Administration Building is the centerpiece of the new Pullman National Monument, and will eventually become the new national park’s visitor center.

 

There’s been some big news in the National Park System in recent weeks with President Obama using the Antiquities Act to add two new national parks to the U.S. National Park System, taking us to 407 total U.S. national parks.    There’s also the usual monthly release of new cancellations for the Parks Passport program, which had two additions this March, one of them for the brand new Park.

The first of the two new national parks is Pullman National Monument in Chicago, located south and west of Chicago’s downtown.   Parkasaurus wrote a short post on the proposal for this national park back in August.   The new National Monument will include the historic administration building and clock tower, which will actually be the only part of the monument owned by the Federal Government.  The administration building was badly damaged by a fire in 1999, and the higher profile of being a national park site should definitely assist fundraising efforts to repair and restore the building.

The rest of the Monument will retain its current ownership.  The architecturally beautiful Hotel Florence and the old factory will remain owned by the State of Illinois as part of Pullman State Historic Site.  The old greenstone church and the numerous worker houses from Pullman’s days as an old-style company town will remained owned by the residents.  Full details are available in the monument’s official proclamation.

This National Monument has clearly been in the works for a long time.   President Obama actually flew in to Chicago to make the announcement on-site, and as part of the ceremonies the National Park Service staff from nearby Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore already had a Junior Ranger program available, as well as a Passport cancellation: Pullman National Monument | Chicago, IL.  The cancellation is available at the Historic Pullman Foundation’s Visitor Center, which is serving as the Park Visitor Center until the Administration Building is complete.

 

The Memorial at Manzanar National Historic Site in California.  Honouliuli National Monument will join Manzanar as one of 5 national parks telling the story of Japanese-American internment during World War II.  Photo from 2009.
The Memorial at the cemetery site in Manzanar National Historic Site in California. Honouliuli National Monument will join Manzanar as one of 5 national parks telling the story of Japanese-American internment during World War II. Photo from 2009.

The second new national park, which was also established under the Antiquities Act on the same day is Honouliuli National Monument, located just outside of urban Honolulu in Hawaii.   At first glance, Honouliuli appears to be the fifth national park telling the story of Japanese internment during World War II.   The first of these is Manzanar National Historic Site in California, which was established as a national park in 1992.  Manzanar was established after a detailed special resource study by the National Park Service on Japanese internment and was selected because it was the first internment camp to be established, the California desert had left Manzanar relatively well-preserved, and its proximity to the main highway between southern California and many of California’s ski resorts insured that it would be relatively accessible to visitation.  The other three are:

The story of Honouliuli will be somewhat different than these other four, however, in two important ways.  First, because of the very large numbers of people of Japanese ancestry in the Territory of Hawaii immediatelly following the attack on Pearl Harbor, internment was carried out much more selectively in Hawaii than the mass-internment which occurred on the American mainland.   In total, only about 2,000 residents of the Territory of Hawaii were interned in World War II, and of those, only about 320 were interned at Honouliuli.   By contrast, Manzanar had more than 10,000 internees at its peak, and Tule Lake had more than 18,000 internees at its peak.  Secondly, Honouliuli actually held more than 4,000 prisoners of war.   In that sense, Honouliuli might also develop closer ties with Andersonville National Historic Site in Georgia, the site of the infamous prisoner of war camp operated by the Confederacy.

As of the date of proclamation, however, Honouliuli has become largely overgrown.   Indeed, the site was actually donated to the Federal Government by Monsanto, which had subsequently acquired the site and surrounding lands.   Right now there is no public access to the site.  It will be at least a few months before the site is open to limited visitation, and likely several years before it is fully opened to regular visits.  So no Passport Cancellation, just yet for this site.

The second new Passport Cancellation for March instead goes to the Selma-to-Montgomery National Historic Trail with a stamp for its 50th Anniversary 1965-2015.   The historic voting rights march to the State Capitol in Montgomery of course came just days after the Nation was then-marking the 100th Anniversary of Lincoln’s 2nd Inaugural Address, and his call to “achieve and cherish a just, and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.”

The addition of Pullman National Monument and Honouliuli National Monument means that there are now 407 national parks in the U.S. National Park System, with another three national parks that were authorized by the Defense Authorization Act for 2015 expected to be established by the end of the year.   Meanwhile, we have recalibrated our calculations of what constitutes a unique Passport cancellation, so the addition of these two new cancellations takes us to a total of  1,889 unique stamps in the Passport Program, with 79 of those being stamps for anniversaries or special events and programs associated with the Parks.

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